Wars of Independence
- 1296–1328 - The First War began with the English invasion of Scotland and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton
- 1332–1357 - The Second War began with the English supported invasion of Edward Balliol and the 'Disinherited' in 1332, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick
The wars were part of a great national crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most defining moments in the nation's history. At the end of both wars, Scotland still retained her status as a free and independent nation, which was her main aim throughout the conflict. The wars were also important for other reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare.
Bannockburn is the most famous Scottish victory in the wars of Independence